"Profile’s characterisation" Sampling

mercredi 27 mai 2015
par  Dorian GUILLEMAIN, Romain DAVID
popularité : 2%

Index of "Profile?’s characterisation"
1. Principle
2. Method
3. Sampling
4. Deliverables
5. To summarize
Back to protocols Index
How to cite this content :

David R., Arvanitidis C., Çinar M.E., Dubar J., Dubois S., Erga Z., Guillemain D., Sartoretto S., Thierry de Ville d’Avray L., Zuberer F., Chenuil A., Féral J.-P., (2014), with contributors : Açik Çinar S., Andral B., Aurelle D., Aysel V., Bakir K., Bellan G., Bellan-Santini D., Bouchoucha M., Celik C., Chatzigeorgiou G., Chatzinikolaou E., Chenesseau S., Dağli E., Dailianis T., Dimitriadis C., D’Iribarne C., Doğan A., Dounas C., Egea E., Elguerrabi W., Emery E., Evcen A., Faulwetter S., Gatti G., Gerovasileiou V., Güçver S.M., Issaris Y., Katağan T., Keklikoglou K., Kirkim F., Koçak F., Koutsoubas D., Marschal C., Önen M., Önen S., Öztürk B., Panayiotidis P., Pavloudi C., Pergent G., Pergent-Martini C., Poursanidis D., Ravel C., Reizopoulou S., Rocher C., Ruiton S., Sakher S., Salomidi M., Sarropoulou E., Selva M., Sini M., Sourbes L., Simboura N., Taşkin E., Vacelet J., Valavanis V., Vasileiadou A., Verlaque M. Protocols for monitoring of coralligenous habitats of mediterannean (Coralligenous based Indicators to Evaluate and Monitor the "good ecological status" of the MEDiterranean coastal waters) Protocoles de suivi du coralligène en méditerranée (Coralligenous
based Indicators to Evaluate and Monitor the "good ecological status" of the MEDiterranean coastal waters).

a. Operations

[§ 1] Before starting the observations, the number of fin swipe necessary to cover 5 m is assessed, in order to avoid the use of a decameter. Generally, an error of about 1 m in 5 m is possible without training ; with training, an average 10% error is reachable. Then, for non experimented divers a new calibration every 10 replicates may assure the most of spatial precision.

[§ 2] Data annotation should be as concise as possible. A notepad prepared with a simple and intuitive grid to fill (e.g. Figure 1) will be necessary. Observers are free to choose the configuration they prefer, but shared data files should be the same for everyone, following the instructions of the protocol.

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Figure 1 : exemple of grid for profiles recording

Table 1 : data collected and acronyms
MetricExemple of possible valuesSignifications
Time Digital positive integer Time in minutes
Orientation N, NE, E, SE, S, SO, O, NO North, Northeast, East, Southeast, South, Southwest, West, Northwest
Inclination V, S, H, O Vertical, Sloping, Horizontal, Overhanging
Rugosity -, +, ++, +++ Insignificant rugosity, low rugosity (hand), average rugosity (head), large rugosity (body)
Upper layer’s species CR, ErSp, EC, ES, PC Corallium rubrum, Erected sponges Eunicella cavolinii, Eunicella singularis, Paramuricea clavata
Lower layer’s species EnRA, EnGA,ErRA, ErGA, Turf, Halim, Flab, Lepto, Litho, Meso, Paraz, Bryo, Cod, Ep, Pey, EnSp Encrusting red algae, Encrusting green algae, Erect red algae, Erect green algae, Turf, Halimeda tuna, Flabellia petiolate, Leptosamia pruvoti, Lithophyllum cabiochae/stictaeforme, Mesophyllum alternans, Parazooxanthus axinellae, Bryozoan, Codium spp., Peyssonnelia spp., Encrusting Sponge
Remarkable species According to diver’s knowledge The diver must specify his knowledge fields on the form
Remarkable populations According to diver’s knowledge The diver must specify his knowledge fields on the form
Solid waste Objets and sizes The diver must precise the object’s type and its size (50 cm, 1m, several metres…)

[§ 3] Diving scenario for sampling :
- First of all, while diving, look for the study site?. Find a notable point at a corner (Figure 2). Describe this point, photograph it, and note its depth. This should take 1 to 2 minutes. An operator on the boat should record the GPS? coordinates thanks to divers’bubbles if there is no current (1 or 2 minute after immersion).

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Figure 2:choice of the notable point

[§ 4]
- Once identified, the notable point will serve as starting point for the transect?(s), which may have two different configurations : i) one-directional (Figure 3, green arrows) or ii) bidirectional (Figure 3 blue arrows).

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Figure 3 : choice of the transect

[§ 5]
- Before any manipulation, take all necessary material. Unroll a semi-decametre to mark the first transect, starting from the notable point. If a second transect in the opposite direction is envisaged, leave the end of the semi-decametre well visible at the starting point (Figure 4). The diver who is taking notes for the cartography has to calibrate his fins swipes (more efficient if slow and steady).The time required for the standardization is about 1-2 min.

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Figure 4 : standardization of fin’s strokes

[§ 6]
- The observer? can start the observations along the transect, divided in several 5 m long segments (Figure 5). Data (time, depth, orientation, inclination, rugosity, species cover and abundace, additional information) are marked on the note-pad ; back glances are recommended not to miss anything. The second observer follows the first and films each segment. Video recording will enable to correct data later, if necessary.

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Figure 5 : transects’ segmentation

[§ 7]
- In case of discontinuous coralligenous formations, transects can be divided in several sections (Figure 6), in order to cover the most of different orientations and slope.

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Figure 6 : case of discontinuous coralligenous walls

[§ 8] Summary of the diving scenario (Figure 7) :
A : descent on site (1 min). B : starting point identification (2 min). C : material installation and calibration (1 to 2 min). D : data collection (max : 16 min diving). E : rise (2 min). F : decompression stop (3 to 5 min). G : end of the dive (Figure 7).
According to the French law for professional diving, the maximum diving time at 30 m depth, without mandatory decompression stop, is 15 min. For safety reasons, and in order to not overstep this rule, sampling sites are choosen at 28 m depth. The ideal diving time at this depth is, thus, 15 min maximum without decompression stop (this rule must be observed for the French citizens if the closest hyperbaric chamber is situated at more than a 2 h journey). In addition, we recommend to make a decompression stop of 5 min instead of 3 min. Deeper dives (beyond 40 m) will be realized with oxygen decompression within CIGESMED. If a collaborator wishes to implement it, he must ensure all necessary safety elements (a maximum of 25 mindive at 45 m implies a decompression stop of 3 min at 9 m and 15 min at 6 m with O2. 15 minat the bottom allows to dive with a decompression stop of 15 min maximum with air).

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Figure 7 : theoretical curve of the dive

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Figure 8 : Diver mapping coralligenous wall (© Zuberer F.)

[§ 9] b. Data conditioning

All note-pads should be scanned (digital archiving) and photocopied (paper archiving). Data should be coded as follows :

[program]_[site]_[date] _D[depth]_[doer] Example : CIGESMED_TME_20140121 _D1_AA01

Data must be sent as soon as possible to the program manager or the person in charge of the database (romain.david@imbe.fr).

[§ 10] c. Material list

  • Conventional diving equipment.
  • Semi-decameter
  • Note-pad with 2 pencils
  • A compass, better if attached to the note-pad.

[§ 11] d. Work time estimation

Time required for each sampling unit : 1-2 minutes for 5 m (at 30 m deep).
The number of dives depends on the number of observers :

  • 2 dives with 2 divers, 2 transects per site = 8 man-dives per site.
  • 1 dive with 3 divers,2 transects per site = 6 man-dives per site.


- Deadline : 14th December 2015
- Please add comments for each paragraph (§) by means of a corrected new version (one form per §)
- It is recommended to add scientific references if necessary

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